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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian "age group of steam", the only material used for boilermaking was the best quality of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the use of metal instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be observed, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of older wrought-iron boilers significantly superior to those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron might be utilized for the heating system vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is usually to produce warm water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
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Energy
The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised warmth exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Heat recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -direct method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to water in kcal/kg q= level of gasoline use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gasoline (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a partially filled water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure steam, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be kept completely surrounded by water in order to keep up the heat range of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which may be further increased by causing the gases reverse direction through another parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be taken along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases go through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled up with drinking water are arranged in the furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the low ones made up of water and top of the ones vapor and water; in other cases, like a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high steam creation rates, but less storage space capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be made to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/steam is contained within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where pipes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the kind of mono-tube vapor generator where the tube is permanently filled up with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is held so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers acquired some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the next manner: the firebox consists of an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a conventional firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. In a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside cast iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with basic safety, security and design standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle steel shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up badly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and heat around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant are affected from range development and corrosion. At best, this boosts energy costs and can result in poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic reduction and failure of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal into the fireplace chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6 -

A boiler which has a loss of give food to water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If nourish water is sent into the clear boiler then, the small cascade of inbound water instantly boils on connection with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be managed even by protection steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Vapor Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a strategy to help prevent this condition from taking place, and therefore reduce their insurance claims.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperatures; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further high temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at higher heat, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating flower because the bigger vapor heat range requires a higher flue gas exhaust heat range.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by providing an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. You will find benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: benefits in input temperatures to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There could be useful limitations in using wet vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to flee, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temp in this field is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb heat by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing high temperature from a fluid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the heat range of the vapor in the superheater rises, the pressure of the vapor does not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a charged power seed.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of energy frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is no generation of steam bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which vapor bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which turns the electrical generator from which power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that time may be considered a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This leads to less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a basic safety by setting top of the limit of vapor pressure, the working pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the amount of fire.
Security valve: It is used to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water gauge or drinking water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of the boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is located straight on the bottom of the boiler usually, and is sometimes opened to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small level of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to avoid the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a container. Most commonly entirely on a water boiler.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the vapor can 'flash' safely and become found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat range of the make-up water.
Hand openings: These are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is used to turn off the burner or shut down energy to the boiler to avoid it from running once the water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown line: It offers a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that tend to float together with water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is made to circulate drinking water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This can be fitted to the comparative side of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: In this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler exhaustion triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: Some tubes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the steam drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out steam.
Chemical substance injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Energy oil system:energy oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name dish:
Registration plate: